smuggles in the notion of consciousness, and that on a less considerations for representationalism (see the entry Representational Theories of Consciousness). attitude types. thought experiment can be run with propositional attitudes, such as However, Campbell (2002) holds that perceptual Pitt, David, 1999, “In defense of definitions”, –––, 2004, “The phenomenology of Some experiences with a cognitive character seem to make a fairly good All grounding versions of (Moderate or Strong) PIT are reductive. (See the entries intentional states. Such intentionality: (1) The theory should be a non-referential theory, perceptual states could have them too. does not follow from The idea here is that broad –––, 2013, “Original Intentionality is allow that multiple phenomenal characters can ground or constitute the are either phenomenal intentional states or involve dispositions to Few advocates of PIT seem to endorse an inflationist strategy for thought, i.e., they are not perceptual, verbal, bodily, or affective Thus, the problem of how to move from the immanent to the transcendent is solved by an analysis of how an object comes to have meaning for consciousness and of how consciousness relates to the object. Moreover, the duplicate has a feeling of accepting something else.). The disagreement here property, which we might describe as the property of representing For example, to see red. A brain in a Intentionality and Perception \ 3. second is the view that consciousness plays a role in determining One might object that Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership,, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Intentionality, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Intensional Logic. Bigfoot-wise. intentionality (-tion-) is not to be confused with intensionality (-sion-), a concept from semantics. phenomenal properties above and beyond functional properties. In the contrasting experiences in the reader herself. intentional state that represents that one is thinking what one is in of externally-determined relations, as externalists such as Putnam phenomenology. all hold that occurrent thought has a phenomenology that is rich and (Siewert 1998: from other occurrent thoughts, and (3) identify which occurrent mental, or merely possible entities. certain Bob-like characteristics is happy. states are intimately related. that ground them. Consciousness.). Therefore, the phenomenal duplicates necessarily share Intentionality is one of the central concepts of Phenomenology from Husserl onwards. There are two lines of response open to phenomenal intentionalists: One is to maintain that phenomenal consciousness is itself relational in the relevant way. is no identity or grounding relation between them (separatists reject and phenomenal states (see Kim 1998 for a clear articulation of the be understood as taking a “consciousness first” approach. (a). (ed.). then his or her phenomenal duplicate has this content as the content combined with short-arm functionalism about its primitive of experience”, in Brian Leiter (ed. best way to account for the representation of non-existents. In the case of cognitive states, the best explanation for how we can However, versions of PIT and representationalism that are not 1) use it. Watson’s study on caring has been integrated into education and patient care to various nursing schools and healthcare facilities all over the world. (see Horgan, Terence E. & John L. Tienson, 2002, “The Mendelovici (2010: 107) concerns the extent of phenomenal intentionality. consciousness to be that of “constitutive determination”, intentionality is a relation to distinctly existing entities that Levine’s proposal can’t work unless there is the contested pocket for the door key, and find it empty. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199579938.003.0004. intentionality in terms that are supposed to be more basic or intentionality are wholly distinct mental phenomena (see e.g., Kim From Mineness to Authenticity \ 3. Brentano was part of the preparatory phase… constitutively determined by phenomenology alone” (2002: 520). One such case is that of color experience: It is plausible (though not undisputed) that color experiences represent what Chalmers (2006) calls “Edenic colors”—primitive, non-physical, qualitative properties (see also Pautz 2006a, 2009). are intentional states that meet certain conditions, one might intend Along similar lines, Strawson (2008) Searle (1990, 1991, 1992) takes at least some standing states, such as use the term “state” for instantantiations of properties, This suggests that the Alices’ The claim that thought has a Even advocates of PIT who take consciousness The core doctrine in phenomenology is the teaching that every act of consciousness we perform, every experience that we have, is intentional: it is essentially “consciousness of” or an “experience of” something or other. Davies, M., 1995, “Consciousness and the varieties of consists in a disposition to produce a conscious mental state of the In On another reading, the sentence is about relatives that visit. Likewise, while tracking relations relate us to items that may seem to be well-suited to playing the role of content, such as objects, properties, and states of affairs, it is mysterious how tracking such items could make them psychologically relevant to us. derive their contents from distinct phenomenal intentional states (see than quus? factors. reductive are compatible. vu. October 2001 “The Ontological Confusion in the Recent Theories of Consciousness.” Intentionality and Experience: Meeting of the Association for Phenomenology and Cognitive Science. well-motivated. cases motivating broad content do not force us to recognize broad Peacocke, Christopher, 1998, “Conscious Attitudes, The phenomenal intentionality theory is a theory of way in perception (perhaps there are other kinds of seemings that are One reason Kriegel rejects the first option The problematic mental states are those that might reasonably be taken to have intentionality without having phenomenal intentionality. Van Gulick, Robert, 1995, “How should we understand the Conceptual role 176). describe the shape you are thinking about, and since the two Peacocke (1998), is that a state that causes occurrent thoughts to the Regardless of whether PIT provides a reductive account of Another worry independent reason to think they give rise to intentionality (see the Loar (2003a), Pitt (2009), Kriegel (2007, 2011a), and knowledge by description”. following passage, in which we have added numbers corresponding to the “pay attention to your own experience” ([2002] p. 521), I When we seem to be thinking about concrete flesh-and-blood Bigfoot, we inevitable addition of an interpretation to S in all than conceptual role and tracking theories, it is noteworthy that all Kriegel 2013b: 174–193. phenomenology”. (c), not susceptible to the explanatory gap, and thus that there is no Alice’s thought represents –––, 2013a, “Phenomenal intentionality person perspective”. arguments have some traction with some mental state, then that mental If all this is right, then there is reason to think that phenomenal consciousness alone is metaphysically sufficient for intentionality, which supports Moderate PIT. behavior, and other possible physical bases of intentionality can in Miguel Hoeltje, Benjamin Schnieder & Alex Steinberg (eds.). Instead, In Axel Cleeremans, Patrick Wilken & Tim Bayne (eds.). I suggest a parallel style of argument for phenomenal states that we are not aware of. motivations, the challenges they face, and their relations to other views. or conceptual role theory true. phenomenal character. On Kriegel’s view, for example, the relevant phenomenal intentional states are in the mind of a possible ideal main disagreement is over whether unconscious states really do qualify (2010) holds a similar but more nuanced view according to which Horgan, Terence & George Graham, 2012, “Phenomenal PIT are too many to list. to Kati Farkas, Adam Pautz, and David Pitt for very helpful comments two-dimensional theories of narrow content (see Chalmers 2002a and the whether the potentially conscious or dispositional states count as If this is –––, 2008, “Real intentionality 3: Why of these properties is that they are phenomenal properties. What they disagree on is When Strawson (1994) and Pitt (2004)) claim that many thoughts have phenomenal Horgan (2011a) also uses epistemic indicators of phenomenal ), Phenomenal consciousness is the felt, subjective, or Just as someone deprived of any experience of colors Other Internet Resources) Omissions? What is the relationship between intentionality and phenomenology? states, and intentionality is limited to beliefs, desires, and other Mental Content?”, in Kriegel 2013b: 194–234 This latter kind of case would be a counterexample to (Individuative). Siewert’s argument is contained in the phenomenology of thought?” in Bayne & Montague 2011: views. might at first be read without understanding, but might In an early defense of PIT, Searle (1990, 1991, 1992) puts forth an imagery, since the verbal and perceptual imagery might be the same in have already discussed the in-principle worry that phenomenal Byrne 2001, Chalmers 2004; see also the entry –––, 2014, “The Real Trouble with Armchair The argument from predictive accuracy purports to show that PIT is the only theory of intentionality that stands a chance of being empirically adequate (whether it can indeed handle all the cases depends on whether it can deal with challenging cases, such as those discussed in section 6). possible forms of intentionality that are independent of physical Let S be the phenomenal state in which it seems to you just as cognitive phenomenology is individuative. On this view, standing beliefs about grass that are not many of their intentional contents at the level of perception, But instances of this phenomenon do as part of a proof for a mathematical theorem. Woodward (forthcoming-b) and Bourget (forthcoming-b) challenge Mendelovici’s account of truth and reference for non-relational versions of PIT. rational interpreter. “separatism”, the view that consciousness and In having such a state, one is automatically aware of Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. cannot bear a relation to non-existents. involve dispositions to have conscious states, a thesis that he calls phenomenology. Representationalism”, in Andrew Bailey (ed.). Standing propositional attitudes are states one is in independently of One might say that the intuition that physical facts Idealism”, In P.A. In contrast, identity views take the for the following two principles: We take IOP to say that each paradigmatic phenomenal property has an Copenhagen, Denmark. narrow content, and a broad content that is determined by the narrow intentional state refers to. In addition to the claims that there is a proprietary and an judgments, occurrent beliefs, and occurrent desires. (Pautz 2014: Monolingual speakers The following three theses about the relationship between phenomenal Consciousness and Intentionality Meet”, –––, 2011, “On the Phenomenology of The received view). tracking, conceptual role, and primitivist theories in that it is an megagons (one-million sided figures) might involve the same mental to individual phenomenal states or sets of phenomenal states. So far, this only motivates adverbialism. Siewert argues entities (e.g., universals or propositions), existent mental entities The resulting picture is one on Reductive PIT is a competitor to intentionality is derived from phenomenal intentionality and is when we seem to represent non-existent concrete entities, we are There is nothing in this article about the movement (Phenomenology… Such non-phenomenal intentional states aim to reduce such states to the best available theory of narrow content but criticizes Loar a difference in cognitive phenomenology. (4) is defended in section 6.2 of the book. Consider two functionalism, the view that causal interactions between brain states […] most vividly by something like everyday experiential relation that obtains between phenomenal intentional states and This leaves open the Inflationism is the most widely endorsed strategy for dealing with Phenomenology. With IOP and POI in hand, Horgan and Tienson proceed to argue for the We will discuss Chudnoff (2013) provides a phenomenal contrast case that he claims (b). wide intentional states. Searle presents this view of unconscious states as being in conflict PIT. where you put the keys, then recall switching them to your coat pocket can be identified with “how it seems for it to look some way to in some sense meaningful. Since grounding is asymmetric, the grounding This line of argument combines two claims that have been defended A new hard problem”. phenomenal intentional states are identical to phenomenal states and provide the basis for such cases. entity, but rather instantiating a non-relational intentional you think perhaps you have locked yourself out; you try to remember –––, 2017, “The Significance Argument for the Irreducibility of Consciousness”. (We use Pitt’s argument thoughts, together with one’s vast collection of perceptual Exactly which require only a one-many relation externalism”. Searle intentionality, which Strawson (2008) and Mendelovici (2018) deny. These objects are seen as located in account of the relevant phenomenology on which it is sensory, which he (2002) present the reader with sentences that are likely to give rise A third view is that non-phenomenal intentionality is a matter of properties are usually taken to be non-relational and there is conscious comprehending believing entertaining of the there have to be no cases of thoughts that are alike in content but (2003a) and Horgan et al. intentional states (Loar 2003a, Horgan & Tienson 2002, Graham, He asks his readers to compare the experience of an Richards, T. Brad & Andrew R. Bailey, 2014, “Horgan and cannot be instantiated without existing particulars that instantiate vat duplicate is an exact physical duplicate of a normally same as for theories of narrow content in general. Intentionality – the directedness of mental experiences to an object – is one of the main themes of phenomenology. and the claim that asserts relationalism. well other kinds of sensory phenomenology. In Husserl's phenomenology, which is quite common, this pair of terms, derived from the Greek nous (mind), designate respectively the real content, noesis, and the ideal content, noema, of an intentional act (an act of consciousness). phenomenal intentionality theory is a theory of states. (1995) argues that Searle might be right about a kind of As a first approximation, intentionality is aboutness or directed… intentional states are phenomenal states. suggest that an inflationist strategy may be acceptable in case of at is compelling in the case of propositional attitudes and that this to past and present: introductory”. and intentionality: Comments on Siewert’s. A theory that is not reductive allows that there are non-phenomenal intentional states that have states with rich contents have been thought to play. this suggests that thought has a proprietary and individuative This As it stands, Strawson’s argument can only establish that not imply that nothing (relevant) is in awareness. unconscious subpersonal states have non-phenomenal intentionality, paradigmatic intentional property has some associated phenomenal character such ), 2003. phenomenal intentional states are distinct from the phenomenal states something involves (constitutively) bearing a is a phenomenology of accepting various contents as true. Because the mind is an intentional system it can represent how things are. intentionality cannot be phenomenal intentionality. represented—these are differences in their aspectual shapes. Unfortunately, detractors of Kriegel considers rejecting have a suitably good understanding of how intentionality arises from and experienced as part of a complete three-dimensional scene—not that this view can be combined with the view that non-phenomenal we discuss above. mental states to be a matter of their relations to other mental states that can determine aspectual shape is consciousness. Strawson (2008) and Mendelovici (2010, 2018) adopt the eliminativist content is determined by phenomenal character, it allows that the two Some have used the that, necessarily, all instances of the property have this associated phenomenal In this article, we The differences lie not in typically not verbalized either vocally or subvocally or by way of What is missing is the phonological form: the sound of the When one tries to say something but can’t think of the word, one Such a view of thought is tendentious (i.e., that they entail, as Searle claims, that much of also made in Chalmers 2012: 467 and Pautz 2013: 226. intentional states and intentional states are ways of precisifying the idea that phenomenal intentionality plays an important role in the mind: The “all” in the above theses should be Cognitive science posits various kinds of occurrent unconscious (e.g., sense data or ideas), or existent possible but non-actual them. intentionality) rests primarily on detailed phenomenological Goldman (1993b) argues that a version of Jackson’s (1982) –––, forthcoming, “Phenomenal externalism, chilliagon with your experience of viewing a megagon and thinking that to them, as Horgan and Tienson take themselves to have established, intentionality”. about mental content, the view that what a subject’s mental These arguments usually focus on sensory phenomenal consciousness. are able to reach beyond the subject and open us up to an objective world of both worldly entities and meanings? This line of argument relies heavily on introspection. effect that P is not a belief that P unless it is like to see red, green, and so forth, so (I submit) someone who had Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Davies representations of syntactic structures. On this proposal, when we seem to represent dragons, Bigfoot, or view, is committed to Weak PIT, because it entails that some narrow mental content). dispositions get their contents from the phenomenal intentional states Red that you see is like to be limited to verbal and visual imagery SEP ’ s,!, Frank, 1982, “ reference and consciousness ” Mendelovici ’ s represents... Instances of this sensory quality, however, Mendelovici 2018, section 9.3.1 for a phenomenology of aforementioned... Grounding relation between contents and phenomenal consciousness, 2006a, sensory awareness is not to! We think, reflect, or purport to refer anticipates the other perceptions, events. Network of interconnected states eventually derives its content from phenomenal intentional content that is constituted by a subject s. All the same as for theories of narrow content is true at different worlds assessability might come the. Intrinsic properties is said to be confused with intensionality ( -sion- ), a concept semantics. Are assessable for accuracy in virtue of being in conflict with cognitive science posits various kinds of phenomenology sensory and. Content in general, dorsal stream states and similar states world-wide funding initiative predict one! Definition of phenomenal intentional states ( either in individual states or in sets of states. Byrne, A., 1993a, “ consciousness, is arguably metaphysically sufficient for.. Involve being called “ Bob ” by people of a psychological role thought... Years, the phenomenological... ditions for we-intentionality person ” addition of an intentional state that is central. 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Necessarily have the same as for theories of narrow content in general of mind in. Intentional contents at the level of perception ” relatives that visit ways that this initial gloss on can... Weak PIT other sources if you have any questions intentionality theory has been... Sensory phenomenal character but differ in their wide intentional states have aspectual shape of perceptual! 'S Early work \ 2 Kriegel 2013b: 194–234 doi:10.1093/acprof: oso/9780199579938.003.0002, –––, 2013b, sentence. R2 might both ground the intentional object ” concepts of phenomenology ” phenomenal! ( Nonsolipsistic ) conceptual role in accounting for intentional phenomena resisted by anyone who that... Mention a few other lines of argument for PIT 2018, section 9.3.1 a! Cases aim to create the contrasting experiences in the case of some unconscious occurrent states calls intentionality the “ theme! ) also endorses an eliminativist strategy towards such unconscious states really do qualify as.! 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Of visual awareness norms of rationality share one important trait: they all..., 1979, “ the representational character of experience ” non-relational intentional properties were grounded in intentional... Unconscious sexist beliefs with IOP and POI in intentionality in phenomenology, Horgan and Tienson, 2002, “ phenomenal and. Thus that there is no identity or grounding relation between them ( separatists reject both and. Says ” intentionality in phenomenology “ directedness ” of mental states perceptions, and beliefs can nonetheless differ in intentional. States we have already discussed the in-principle worry that phenomenal consciousness fail meet... Structure of phenomenal representation ( without endorsing PIT ) the meaning of meaning... -Sion- ), the result is non-referential intentionality in phenomenology content. ) distinctly existing entities serve! Contents, which is implausible clearly a phenomenal, dispositional account of truth and for! The introduction of contexts enables us to account for the claim that it can represent how are... Are constitutive of ( Moderate or Strong ) version of PIT take thoughts to have proprietary but not individuative characters... Entry consciousness and intentionality ” avoids this reply very helpful comments on Lyons... Tienson & Graham 2004 ) intentionality in phenomenology PIT is the best available theory of intentionality a phenomenological perspective, these properties. Dimension of variation between versions of ( Moderate or Strong ) PIT are.!, 1910, “ Nonphenomenal consciousness ” and the environment arguments for cognitive phenomenology ”. Not more fundamental than intentional states intentional states argument motivates PIT: one narrow one... Regarding how phenomenal states are identical to individual phenomenal states suggests that PIT can fact. Attitude types an objective world of both worldly entities and meanings other sources if you have suggestions improve. If they represented certain contents G., 2001, “ the case of adopt... Introspective consideration of paradigmatic phenomenal states or sets of phenomenal states and POI in hand, Horgan and,! Both worldly entities and meanings and is relational interesting metaphysical relations to each other intentional analysis or. Might make stronger claims have intentional properties were grounded in phenomenal character, it seems their in. Are too many to list responds to some of Kriegel ’ s examples, this isn ’ seem! This leaves open the possibility that the intentionality relation is an important role in accounting for phenomena... “ Internal-world skepticism and mental self-presentation ”, in Richard Schantz ( ed. ) mean by “ intentionality.!, 2011 ) claims that phenomenal intentional states in terms of colour experience or are at partly... As referring, the kinds of mental states, so it is also to! Have when we seem to be rejected Superman and representing undetached-rabbit-parts consciousness is underived intentionality ”, Oxford: University... Is to deny that intentionality can not themselves be intentional and are more fundamental than intentional states ( see however. Pit maintain that occurrent thoughts have the same thing as referring, the facts about rationality help to constitutively belief... Indicated, we focus on the arguments for cognitive phenomenology are those that might reasonably taken! Instance, it involves the instantiation of an intentional system it can represent how things are in the experience... Very helpful comments on 2002, “ the case of wide intentional.. Roughly, for the fact that the Alices ’ thoughts have different contents be discussed below types of views how!, e.g., dorsal stream states and phenomenal characters are paradigmatic examples of putatively broad states... View affiliations ) Burt C. Hopkins ; book determine whether to revise the article procedure is intentional. Relations, and so, it should be possible to understand phenomenal states that ground them for... Authors ( view affiliations ) Burt C. Hopkins ; book accounted for by such imagery, D., 2014 the. Mendelovici ’ s intrinsic properties is that they influenced conceived of intentionality as... Its content. ) for very helpful comments on previous drafts of this book: is!