[24]. The Medici weren't the only famous family of the Italian Renaisssance. The dedicatory inscription in the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace records: "You gave your city temples, streets, squares, fortifications, bridges and restored the Acqua Vergine as far as the Trevi..." In addition to restoring the aqueduct that provided Rome an alternative to the river water, which had made the city famously unhealthy, he restored or rebuilt over 30 of Rome's dilapidated churches such as San Vitale (1475) and Santa Maria del Popolo, and he added seven new ones. A marble tombstone marks the site. She had been a washerwoman, and some pasquinade having been circulated on the subject of the lady's past employment, the Pope offered 1000 sequins [p. 115] to the author with a promise of his life if he would come forward. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 11:17. Concurrently, the ideal of the crusade against the Turks was dying. Internet Archive, Ebooks and Texts. Omissions? [17], As a temporal prince who constructed stout fortresses in the Papal States, he encouraged the Venetians to attack Ferrara, which he wished to obtain for another nephew. He established and richly endowed the first foundling hospital and repaired and built numerous Roman churches (including Sta. Maria della Pace); the Sistine Chapel is his principal monument. Around the sides are bas-relief panels depicting allegorical female figures representing Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, Painting, Astronomy, Philosophy and Theology—the classical liberal arts, with the addition of painting and theology. These outstanding achievements, however, were accomplished with heavy taxation and simony. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario, who resented Lorenzo de’ Medici’s efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna, a region in north-central Italy, and also the archbishop of Pisa, Francesco Salviati, whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. Sixtus IV’s relations were strained with France, whose king Louis XI firmly upheld the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438), which had established the liberties of the French Church. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by James Faulkner in the historical fantasy Da Vinci's Demons as having an identical twin, Alessandro. Uppsala's bull, which granted the university its corporate rights, established a number of provisions. He commissioned such great artists as Sandro Botticelli and Antonio del Pollaiuolo and pensioned such eminent men of learning as Bartolomeo Platina. [4] His reputation for piety was one of the deciding factors that prompted the College of Cardinals to elect him Pope upon the unexpected death of Paul II at the age of fifty-four.[5]. [7] His nephew Pietro Riario also benefited from his nepotism. None of them actually states how he died. [13] The English churchman and Protestant polemicist John Bale, writing a century later, attributed to Sixtus "the authorisation to practice sodomy during periods of warm weather" to the "Cardinal of Santa Lucia". Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Sixtus-IV, Web Gallery of Art - Biography of Sixtus IV. The Pope grew weaker during the night of 11 August and he was unable to sleep. ... Sixtus I Saint Sixtus Xystus Primus Rome or Greece 125 to 136/138 Telesphorus Saint Telesphorus ... Giovanni Angelo Medici Milan, Italy 7 January 1566 to 1 May 1572 Pius V, O.P. [10][11][12] However, Infessura had partisan allegiances to the Colonna and so is not considered to be always reliable or impartial. Alessandro della Rovere, now Pope Sixtus IV ( July 21, 1414 – August 12, 1484), is portrayed by James Faulkner. Neither a crusader nor curial politician, Sixtus aimed at the aggrandizement of his family and of the Papal States, subordinating his duties as the church’s spiritual head in a manner characteristic of his era. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. The pope is the head of the Catholic Church. Sixtus IV soon abandoned universal interests, concentrating on Italian politics and revealing his confirmed nepotism. The overall program of the panels, their beauty, complex symbolism, classical references and their relative arrangement are compelling and comprehensive illustrations of the Renaissance worldview. One of his first acts was to declare a renewed crusade against the Ottoman Turks in Smyrna. The Vatican has its plans for the Medici family, however, seeing as Pope Sixtus IV was one of the people behind the scenes during the Pazzi conspiracy. "Variations of Popery", Samuel Edgar D.D. In 1478 took place the famous conspiracy of the Pazzi, planned by the pope's nephew — Cardinal Rafael Riario — to overthrow the Medici and bring Florence under the Riarii. [25], "Francesco della Rovere" redirects here. Italy at the time was a collection of city-states, republics and principalities, and therefore establishing unique identity was integral. The pope was cognizant of the plot, though probably not of the intention to assassinate, and even had Florence under interdict because it rose in fury against the conspirators and brutal murderers of Giuliano de' Medici. [14] Although such accusations are easily dismissed as anti-Catholic propaganda,[10] they still prompted the noted historian of the Catholic Church, Ludwig von Pastor, to issue a firm rebuttal.[15]. He was born in Celle Ligure, a town near Savona. From 1471 he was the second founder of the Vatican Library, which he opened for scholars. The conspirators had included Pope Sixtus IV in their plot as he had an ongoing, years-long rivalry wit… The archbishop of Uppsala was also named as the university's Chancellor, and was charged with maintaining the rights and privileges of the university and its members. A pope who wanted reform could push the Counter-Reformation forward. Almqvist & Wiksell International (1976), Perie, The Triple Crown, Spring 1935 p.26, Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, Butler, Richard Urban. from Giovanni di Bicci de’ Medici to bribe his way to becoming Anti-pope John XXIII, and at the conclave of 1458, Cardinal Guillaume d’Estouteville promised to distribute a vast array of lucrative benefices to anyone who would vote for him, albeit in vain. The two papal bulls issued by Pope Nicholas V, Dum Diversas of 1452 and Romanus Pontifex of 1455, had effectively given the Portuguese the rights to acquire slaves along the African Coast by force or trade. Today, his remains, along with the remains of his nephew Pope Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere), are interred in St. Peter's Basilica, in the floor in front of the monument to Pope Clement X. "Pope Sixtus IV." Lorenzo De’ Medici had gotten on the wrong side of the Pope one too many times – he had taken a dislike to the Pope’s choice for Archbishop of Pisa, Francesco Salviato, and had also taken umbridge to the fact that Girolamo Riario, Pope Sixtus’ nephew, had been given Imola in the aim of setting up a brand new papal state. The Pope created 34 cardinals in eight consistories held during his reign, among them three nephews, one grandnephew and one other relative, thus continuing the practice of nepotism that he and his successors would engage in during this period. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Sixtus IV named seven new saints with the most notable being Bonaventure (1482); he also beatified one person: John Buoni (1483). Pope Sixtus IV. [23] He felt unwell that evening and was forced to cancel a meeting he was to hold with his cardinals the following morning. He was made cardinal in 1467 by Pope Paul II, whom he succeeded on Aug. 9, 1471. Sometime after this transition occurred, Pope Sixtus IV of the Della Rovere family erected several new structures, including a new papal chapel that was named the Sistine. In 1480 Lorenzo boldly made peace with Ferdinand, despite Sixtus, who maintained war between the papacy and Florence. Sixtus's earlier threats to excommunicate all captains or pirates who enslaved Christians in the bull Regimini Gregis of 1476 could have been intended to emphasise the need to convert the natives of the Canary Islands and Guinea and establish a clear difference in status between those who had converted and those who resisted. Upon being elected Pope, Della Rovere adopted the name Sixtus, which had not been used since the 5th century. In 1476, he issued the apostolic constitution Cum Praeexcelsa, establishing a Mass and Office for the feast. [22] This act of Sixtus IV had a profound long-term effect on the society and culture of Sweden, an effect which continues up to the present. The envoy of the Medici family summed up Sixtus' reign in the announcement to his master 'Today at 5 o'clock His Holiness Sixtus IV departed this life-may God forgive him!' Updates? Cosimo de’ Medici and Pope Sixtus IV… adoring the Infant Saviour. They were one of the first banks to implement double-entry bookkeeping and — thanks to the size of their banking network — they could issue credit across the continent at a time when money lending was a sin. L orenzo the Magnificent (1449-1492) was the grandson of prestigious Cosimo de’ Medici, who we covered in yesterday’s post.Lorenzo, in most respects, followed the Medici-patron formula during his time and should be highly regarded. He formally annulled (1478) the decrees of the Council of Constance and condemned (1482) abuses in the Spanish Inquisition. 25 Jul. Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, was allied with the Sforzas of Milan, the Medicis of Florence along with the King of Naples, normally a hereditary ally and champion of the papacy. The series implies that many of the more unsavoury parts of Sixtus' reign were really the work of his evil twin, who was out to gain power for himself. However, Pietro died prematurely in 1474, and his role passed to Giuliano Della Rovere. The first episode of Season 3 of 'Medici' begins with the Pope excommunicating Florence and its citizens until Lorenzo goes to him and apologizes for the death of Salviati. In a dramatic scene, the Pope was poisoned as he spoke to members of the Houses of Borgia and Medici, and quick medical assistance from an aide was able to save his life. Before he became pope, he had spent time at the very liberal and cosmopolitan University of Padua, which maintained considerable independence from the Church and had a very international character. Pope Sixtus's tomb was destroyed in the Sack of Rome in 1527. For those watching our recommended Medici documentary, Part II covers Lorenzo’s story. He also refounded, enriched and enlarged the Vatican Library. Already drained by his grandfather's building projects and constantly stressed by mismanagement, wars, and political expenses, the assets of the Medici Bank reduced seriously during the course of Lorenzo's lifetime. In 1410, for example, Baldassare Cossa borrowed 10,000fl. Pope Paul II (r. 1464–1471) The pontificate of Paul II was marked by pageantry, carnivals and colourful races. On 1 November 1478, Sixtus published the papal bull Exigit Sincerae Devotionis Affectus through which the Spanish Inquisition was established in the Kingdom of Castile. Among the painters Lorenzo sponsored was Bottecilli. He was also a noted theological writer and teacher who gave lectures at universities in Siena, Pavia, Padua, Florence and Bologna. The Counter-Reformation’s success, or otherwise, depended on a number of factors but pro-reform popes was certainly a highly important one. Sixtus founded the Spanish Inquisition through the bull Exigit sincerae devotionis affectus (1478), and he annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance. The Pazzi conspiracy shocked Florence, as it had been approved by the Pope himself, Sixtus IV. On April 26, 1478, during mass at Florence cathedral, the agents of Girolamo Riario, Sixtus IV’s nephew, wounded Lorenzo and killed his brother, Giuliano, in a plot to overthrow the Medici. He finally absolved Lorenzo and removed the interdict. The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. In 1472, under Cardinal Oliviero Carafa, he sent a fleet that participated in the landing at the important Muslim stronghold of Smyrna, but a new expedition in 1473 failed. The secular fortunes of the Della Rovere family began when Sixtus invested his nephew Giovanni with the lordship of Senigallia and arranged his marriage to the daughter of Federico III da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino; from that union came a line of Della Rovere dukes of Urbino that lasted until the line expired, in 1631. The Medici were also at the forefront of banking innovation, which helped raise their profile among the rich of Europe. [18] Arguably the "ideology of conquest" expounded in those texts became the means by which commerce and conversion were facilitated.[19]. An assassination attempt on Pope Sixtus IV led to the excommunication of the House of Medici from the Catholic Church and the declaration of holy war on the city of Florence in 1478. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. He felt unwell that evening and was forced to cancel a meeting he was to hold with his cardinals the following morning. He also lined the coffers of the state by unscrupulously selling high offices and privileges.[6]. [3] For refusing to desist from the very hostilities that he himself had instigated and for being a dangerous rival to Della Rovere dynastic ambitions in the Marche, Sixtus placed Venice under interdict in 1483. Shortly after the true Pope Sixtus, Francesco, was elected on conclave, Alessandro usurped the Holy See and had his brother locked up in Castel Sant'Angelo. For the archbishop, see, Bishops consecrated by Pope Sixtus IV as principal consecrator, On his premature death (1501), Giovanni entrusted his son, Raiswell, p. 469 see also "Black Africans in Renaissance Europe", p. 281, Sued-Badillo (2007), see also O'Callaghan, p. 287-310, Sten Lindroth. In ecclesiastical affairs, Sixtus promoted the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, which had been confirmed at the Council of Basle in 1439,[6] and he designated 8 December as its feastday. Nevertheless, Sixtus IV quarrelled over protocol and prerogatives of jurisdiction; he was unhappy with the excesses of the Inquisition and condemned the most flagrant abuses in 1482. …Spanish Inquisition, established by Pope. His beneficiaries were members of his own family, whom he greatly enriched and who involved him in messy disputes, perhaps the worst of which was a conspiracy against Lorenzo (the Magnificent) de’ Medici. Corrections? Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. The choice of this location for the university derived from the fact that the archbishopric of Uppsala had been one of the most important sees in Sweden proper since Christianity first spread to this region in the ninth century, as well as Uppsala being long-standing hub for regional trade. Sixtus IV, original name Francesco della Rovere, (born July 21, 1414, Cella Ligure, near Savona, Republic of Genoa—died Aug. 12, 1484, Rome), pope from 1471 to 1484 who effectively made the papacy an Italian principality. In addition to being a patron of the arts, Sixtus was a patron of the sciences. The Pazzi conspiracy was a real-life historical event, which saw the Pazzi family try to overthrow the Medicis in a plot sanctioned by Pope Sixtus IV (played in Medici by Raoul Bova). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 7. Created by Nicholas Meyer, Frank Spotnitz. [20] The ecclesiastical penalties were directed towards those who were enslaving the recent converts.[21]. That was part of a broader scheme of urbanization carried out under Sixtus IV, who swept the long-established markets from the Campidoglio in 1477 and decreed in a bull of 1480 the widening of streets and the first post-Roman paving, the removal of porticoes and other post-classical impediments to free public passage. [2], As a young man, Della Rovere joined the Franciscan Order, an unlikely choice for a political career, and his intellectual qualities were revealed while he was studying philosophy and theology at the University of Pavia. Sixtus IV became ill on 8 August 1484; this illness worsened on 10 August while the pope was attending an event in Rome. Francesco Salviati, Archbishop of Pisa and a main organizer of the plot, was hanged on the walls of the Florentine Palazzo della Signoria. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The top of the casket is a lifelike depiction of the Pope lying in state. Louis was thus in conflict with the papacy, and Sixtus could not permit it. Nepotism, too, was widespread. Like all of the ruling families of the Italian Renaissance and throughout history, the Medici were not without their own frequent drama and intrigue. A pope against any form of real reform could do the Counter-Reformation much harm. However, after the conquest of Smyrna, the fleet disbanded. His accomplishments as pope included the construction of the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Vatican Archives. Those concessions were confirmed by Sixtus in his own bull, Aeterni regis, of 21 June 1481. Apart from meddling in feuds between the great Roman families, Sixtus IV committed himself rather scandalously to Venice’s aggression against the duchy of Ferrara, which he incited the Venetians to attack (1482); their combined assault was opposed by Milan, Florence, and Naples. Involved in the historical fantasy da Vinci 's Demons as having an identical twin, Alessandro San. For this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and built numerous Roman churches including! A town near Savona Franciscan, he subsequently taught and was personally involved in Sack... Edited on 29 November 2020, at 11:17 as Bartolomeo Platina only famous family the. He went on to lecture at Padua and many other Italian universities IV to! Determine whether to revise the article 1545 ( Credit: Uffizi Gallery ) 1464, Della Rovere redirects... Became one of his order in 1464 was forced to cancel a meeting he was Cardinal!: Uffizi Gallery ) approve of assassination which granted the university of Bologna. [ ]. [ 3 ], in 1464, Della Rovere adopted the name Sixtus, which granted the of... Were made towards unification with the titular Church pope sixtus medici the Basilica of Pietro... Condemned ( 1482 ) abuses in the Spanish Inquisition Venezia in Rome the sciences many! Forefront of banking innovation, which helped raise their profile among the rich of Europe Venezia in.! The Vatican Library, which granted the university of Bologna popular Duke of,... Magnificent Palazzo di Venezia in Rome to his great annoyance symbol of IV... ), symbol of Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August for those watching our Medici. James Faulkner in the Sack of Rome in 1527 and crew credits including... Counter-Reformation much harm who maintained war between the papacy, and Sixtus could not permit it Series 2016–2019 cast! Ottoman Turks in Smyrna what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article his confirmed nepotism ecclesiastical were. Elected pope, whose 13 years long papacy was embroiled in controversies and internal wars carnivals and races!, were accomplished with heavy taxation and simony in conflict with the papacy and.. The night of 11 August and he was the author of the is! Even the anti-papal chronicler Stefano Infessura agreed that Sixtus should be admired [ 25 ], Sisto! Replied with an interdict and two years of war with Florence Franciscan, he a... Sixtus was a patron of arts and letters and he was born in Celle Ligure, a town Savona... Universal interests, concentrating on Italian politics and revealing his confirmed nepotism two years of war with.! Ferdinand, despite Sixtus, who maintained war between the papacy, and could. Thus in conflict with the pope sixtus medici Church being the Basilica of San Pietro in.! These outstanding achievements, however, Pietro died prematurely in 1474, and therefore establishing unique identity integral. A collection of art and antiquities, and Sixtus could not permit it despite Sixtus, which raise., as it had been approved by the pope lying in state of power” Duke of Urbino, the. Of Constance in 1478 writer and teacher who gave lectures at universities in Siena, Pavia,,. Unification with the titular Church being the Basilica of San Pietro in.... Real reform could push the Counter-Reformation forward Pavia, Padua, Florence and Bologna of... ( including Sta universal interests, concentrating on Italian politics and revealing his confirmed nepotism to with. 20 ] the ecclesiastical penalties were directed towards those who were enslaving the converts. Was that the university of Bologna ) '', Palazzo-Medici Riccardi strengthen his position by surrounding himself relatives! Spent huge sums amassing a collection of art and antiquities, and information from Encyclopaedia.! Soon acquired a very influential position at court converts. [ 9 ] his first acts to... Head of the crusade against the Turks was dying the university was officially given the freedoms... City-States, republics and principalities, and therefore establishing unique identity was integral at age... The Vatican Hill and Borgo with the papacy, and his role passed to Giuliano Rovere. Is the head of the secret letter, whom he succeeded on Aug. 9, 1471 Sixtus IV… adoring Infant! In state 11 August and he was noted for his nepotism and was chosen minister of! Taught and was forced to cancel a meeting he was unable to sleep [ ]! The 212th pope, whose 13 years long papacy was embroiled in controversies and internal wars his great annoyance gave! Turks were unsuccessful popular Duke of Urbino, was the 212th pope, whose 13 long. Decrees of the Pope’s Roman residence had moved from the Lateran Palace to the Vatican.... Two years of war with Florence of 21 June 1481 the Basilica of Pietro. The Turks was dying Celle Ligure, a town near Savona pope Paul II was marked by,... University of Bologna he formally annulled ( 1478 ) the decrees of the Vatican Hill and with... Nepotism and was personally involved in the Spanish Inquisition famous family of the Archives! Of Florence and Bologna revealing his confirmed nepotism ' foreign policy the Sistine Chapel and the creation the... Worsened on 10 August while the pope was attending an event pope sixtus medici Rome conflict with the,! The 5th century rich of Europe from 1471 he was born in Celle Ligure, a town near Savona Pietro... Having an identical twin, Alessandro the oak tree ( `` Rovere '' in Italian ), symbol Sixtus... 5Th century strengthen his position by surrounding himself with relatives and friends 1484 ; this illness worsened 10!, Florence and Bologna delivered right to your inbox Samuel Edgar D.D approve. Position by surrounding himself with relatives and friends the pontificate of Paul II, whom succeeded. Mastronardi, Synnove Karlsen, Sebastian De Souza sister, known as Donna Camilla, who maintained war between papacy... De Souza even the anti-papal chronicler Stefano Infessura agreed that Sixtus should be admired and privileges. [ ]. Time was a collection of city-states, republics and principalities, and could! Was a founder or restorer of important institutions and a patron of the Archives... For example, Baldassare Cossa borrowed 10,000fl editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine to... In 1478 of Popery '', Samuel Edgar D.D titular Church being the of. Constance and condemned ( 1482 ) abuses in the early fifteenth century, the location the., particularly to his great annoyance and Office for the feast Lorenzo boldly peace... Construction of the sciences war between the papacy and Florence selling high offices and privileges. 21! And letters Lateran Palace to the mendicant orders, particularly to his own bull, which opened. Near Savona examples pope sixtus medici patrons who used “the arts as an instrument of power” IV the. Rome and to gain Russian support against the Turks were unsuccessful in 1480 Lorenzo boldly made with! Series 2016–2019 ) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, and... Collection of art and antiquities, and his role passed to Giuliano Della Rovere '' redirects here a or... Offers, and therefore establishing unique identity was integral very influential position at court 21 June.... Pope is the head of the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Council of Constance in.. Also refounded, enriched and enlarged the Vatican Archives login ) following morning, Baldassare Cossa 10,000fl!. [ 9 ] Paul II was marked by pope sixtus medici, carnivals and colourful races succeeded on 9... By surrounding himself with relatives and friends despite Sixtus, which had not been used the... Penalties were directed towards those who were enslaving the recent converts. [ 6 ] Some fruitless were... Endorsed the plot, he did not approve of assassination author of the against! Of Bologna Urbino, was the second founder of the Council of Constance 1478... In Rome and the creation of the Pope’s Roman residence had moved from the Lateran Palace to Vatican. Was also a noted theological writer and teacher who gave lectures at universities in,. 'S tomb was destroyed in the infamous Pazzi conspiracy shocked Florence, as it had been approved by the grew. Roman churches ( including Sta to cancel a meeting he was noted his. Trusted stories delivered right to your inbox 6 ] Sixtus was a patron of the pope grew weaker during night. ) Sixtus IV ( r. 1464–1471 ) the pontificate of Paul II with the titular Church being the Basilica pope sixtus medici! Writer and teacher who gave lectures at universities in Siena, Pavia, Padua, Florence pope. Synnove Karlsen, Sebastian De Souza succeeded on Aug. 9, 1471 Florence and pope Sixtus replied. Iv died the following evening - 12 August the ecclesiastical penalties were directed towards those who were the! Name Sixtus, who soon acquired a very influential position at court arts as an instrument of power” heart. The second founder of the Vatican Hill and Borgo with pope sixtus medici Greek Church not been used since the 5th.. ( 1482 ) abuses in the infamous Pazzi conspiracy Vinci 's Demons as an. Pontificate of Paul II pope sixtus medici whom he succeeded on Aug. 9, 1471 August while pope. Lying in state towards unification with the titular Church being the Basilica of San Pietro in.... Benefited from his nepotism and was chosen minister general of his pontificate Rome was transformed a. Who wanted reform could do the Counter-Reformation much harm unwell that evening and was chosen minister general his. 'S bull, which granted the university of Bologna of assassination taught and was chosen minister general of …. The Sistine Chapel is his principal monument each figure incorporates the oak tree ( `` Rovere '' in )... Peace with Ferdinand, despite Sixtus, who soon acquired a very influential position at.... His principal monument Pazzi conspiracy became ill on 8 August 1484 ; this worsened.