. The Medici weren't the only famous family of the Italian Renaisssance. The dedicatory inscription in the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace records: "You gave your city temples, streets, squares, fortifications, bridges and restored the Acqua Vergine as far as the Trevi..." In addition to restoring the aqueduct that provided Rome an alternative to the river water, which had made the city famously unhealthy, he restored or rebuilt over 30 of Rome's dilapidated churches such as San Vitale (1475) and Santa Maria del Popolo, and he added seven new ones. A marble tombstone marks the site. She had been a washerwoman, and some pasquinade having been circulated on the subject of the lady's past employment, the Pope offered 1000 sequins [p. 115] to the author with a promise of his life if he would come forward. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 11:17. Concurrently, the ideal of the crusade against the Turks was dying. Internet Archive, Ebooks and Texts. Omissions? , As a temporal prince who constructed stout fortresses in the Papal States, he encouraged the Venetians to attack Ferrara, which he wished to obtain for another nephew. He established and richly endowed the first foundling hospital and repaired and built numerous Roman churches (including Sta. Maria della Pace); the Sistine Chapel is his principal monument. Around the sides are bas-relief panels depicting allegorical female figures representing Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, Painting, Astronomy, Philosophy and Theology—the classical liberal arts, with the addition of painting and theology. These outstanding achievements, however, were accomplished with heavy taxation and simony. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario, who resented Lorenzo deâ Mediciâs efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna, a region in north-central Italy, and also the archbishop of Pisa, Francesco Salviati, whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. Sixtus IVâs relations were strained with France, whose king Louis XI firmly upheld the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438), which had established the liberties of the French Church. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by James Faulkner in the historical fantasy Da Vinci's Demons as having an identical twin, Alessandro. Uppsala's bull, which granted the university its corporate rights, established a number of provisions. He commissioned such great artists as Sandro Botticelli and Antonio del Pollaiuolo and pensioned such eminent men of learning as Bartolomeo Platina.  His reputation for piety was one of the deciding factors that prompted the College of Cardinals to elect him Pope upon the unexpected death of Paul II at the age of fifty-four..  His nephew Pietro Riario also benefited from his nepotism. None of them actually states how he died.  The English churchman and Protestant polemicist John Bale, writing a century later, attributed to Sixtus "the authorisation to practice sodomy during periods of warm weather" to the "Cardinal of Santa Lucia". Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Sixtus-IV, Web Gallery of Art - Biography of Sixtus IV. The Pope grew weaker during the night of 11 August and he was unable to sleep. ... Sixtus I Saint Sixtus Xystus Primus Rome or Greece 125 to 136/138 Telesphorus Saint Telesphorus ... Giovanni Angelo Medici Milan, Italy 7 January 1566 to 1 May 1572 Pius V, O.P.  However, Infessura had partisan allegiances to the Colonna and so is not considered to be always reliable or impartial. Alessandro della Rovere, now Pope Sixtus IV ( July 21, 1414 â August 12, 1484), is portrayed by James Faulkner. Neither a crusader nor curial politician, Sixtus aimed at the aggrandizement of his family and of the Papal States, subordinating his duties as the churchâs spiritual head in a manner characteristic of his era. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. The pope is the head of the Catholic Church. Sixtus IV soon abandoned universal interests, concentrating on Italian politics and revealing his confirmed nepotism. The overall program of the panels, their beauty, complex symbolism, classical references and their relative arrangement are compelling and comprehensive illustrations of the Renaissance worldview. One of his first acts was to declare a renewed crusade against the Ottoman Turks in Smyrna. The Vatican has its plans for the Medici family, however, seeing as Pope Sixtus IV was one of the people behind the scenes during the Pazzi conspiracy. "Variations of Popery", Samuel Edgar D.D. In 1478 took place the famous conspiracy of the Pazzi, planned by the pope's nephew â Cardinal Rafael Riario â to overthrow the Medici and bring Florence under the Riarii. , "Francesco della Rovere" redirects here. Italy at the time was a collection of city-states, republics and principalities, and therefore establishing unique identity was integral. The pope was cognizant of the plot, though probably not of the intention to assassinate, and even had Florence under interdict because it rose in fury against the conspirators and brutal murderers of Giuliano de' Medici.  Although such accusations are easily dismissed as anti-Catholic propaganda, they still prompted the noted historian of the Catholic Church, Ludwig von Pastor, to issue a firm rebuttal.. He was born in Celle Ligure, a town near Savona. From 1471 he was the second founder of the Vatican Library, which he opened for scholars. The conspirators had included Pope Sixtus IV in their plot as he had an ongoing, years-long rivalry witâ¦ The archbishop of Uppsala was also named as the university's Chancellor, and was charged with maintaining the rights and privileges of the university and its members. A pope who wanted reform could push the Counter-Reformation forward. Almqvist & Wiksell International (1976), Perie, The Triple Crown, Spring 1935 p.26, Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, Butler, Richard Urban. from Giovanni di Bicci deâ Medici to bribe his way to becoming Anti-pope John XXIII, and at the conclave of 1458, Cardinal Guillaume dâEstouteville promised to distribute a vast array of lucrative benefices to anyone who would vote for him, albeit in vain. The two papal bulls issued by Pope Nicholas V, Dum Diversas of 1452 and Romanus Pontifex of 1455, had effectively given the Portuguese the rights to acquire slaves along the African Coast by force or trade. Today, his remains, along with the remains of his nephew Pope Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere), are interred in St. Peter's Basilica, in the floor in front of the monument to Pope Clement X. "Pope Sixtus IV." Lorenzo Deâ Medici had gotten on the wrong side of the Pope one too many times â he had taken a dislike to the Popeâs choice for Archbishop of Pisa, Francesco Salviato, and had also taken umbridge to the fact that Girolamo Riario, Pope Sixtusâ nephew, had been given Imola in the aim of setting up a brand new papal state. The Pope created 34 cardinals in eight consistories held during his reign, among them three nephews, one grandnephew and one other relative, thus continuing the practice of nepotism that he and his successors would engage in during this period. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Sixtus IV named seven new saints with the most notable being Bonaventure (1482); he also beatified one person: John Buoni (1483). Pope Sixtus IV.  He felt unwell that evening and was forced to cancel a meeting he was to hold with his cardinals the following morning. He was made cardinal in 1467 by Pope Paul II, whom he succeeded on Aug. 9, 1471. Sometime after this transition occurred, Pope Sixtus IV of the Della Rovere family erected several new structures, including a new papal chapel that was named the Sistine. In 1480 Lorenzo boldly made peace with Ferdinand, despite Sixtus, who maintained war between the papacy and Florence. Sixtus's earlier threats to excommunicate all captains or pirates who enslaved Christians in the bull Regimini Gregis of 1476 could have been intended to emphasise the need to convert the natives of the Canary Islands and Guinea and establish a clear difference in status between those who had converted and those who resisted. Upon being elected Pope, Della Rovere adopted the name Sixtus, which had not been used since the 5th century. In 1476, he issued the apostolic constitution Cum Praeexcelsa, establishing a Mass and Office for the feast.  This act of Sixtus IV had a profound long-term effect on the society and culture of Sweden, an effect which continues up to the present. The envoy of the Medici family summed up Sixtus' reign in the announcement to his master 'Today at 5 o'clock His Holiness Sixtus IV departed this life-may God forgive him!' Updates? Cosimo deâ Medici and Pope Sixtus IVâ¦ adoring the Infant Saviour. They were one of the first banks to implement double-entry bookkeeping and â thanks to the size of their banking network â they could issue credit across the continent at a time when money lending was a sin. L orenzo the Magnificent (1449-1492) was the grandson of prestigious Cosimo deâ Medici, who we covered in yesterdayâs post.Lorenzo, in most respects, followed the Medici-patron formula during his time and should be highly regarded. He formally annulled (1478) the decrees of the Council of Constance and condemned (1482) abuses in the Spanish Inquisition. 25 Jul. Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, was allied with the Sforzas of Milan, the Medicis of Florence along with the King of Naples, normally a hereditary ally and champion of the papacy. The series implies that many of the more unsavoury parts of Sixtus' reign were really the work of his evil twin, who was out to gain power for himself. However, Pietro died prematurely in 1474, and his role passed to Giuliano Della Rovere. The first episode of Season 3 of 'Medici' begins with the Pope excommunicating Florence and its citizens until Lorenzo goes to him and apologizes for the death of Salviati. In a dramatic scene, the Pope was poisoned as he spoke to members of the Houses of Borgia and Medici, and quick medical assistance from an aide was able to save his life. Before he became pope, he had spent time at the very liberal and cosmopolitan University of Padua, which maintained considerable independence from the Church and had a very international character. Pope Sixtus's tomb was destroyed in the Sack of Rome in 1527. For those watching our recommended Medici documentary, Part II covers Lorenzoâs story. He also refounded, enriched and enlarged the Vatican Library. Already drained by his grandfather's building projects and constantly stressed by mismanagement, wars, and political expenses, the assets of the Medici Bank reduced seriously during the course of Lorenzo's lifetime. In 1410, for example, Baldassare Cossa borrowed 10,000fl. Pope Paul II (r. 1464â1471) The pontificate of Paul II was marked by pageantry, carnivals and colourful races. On 1 November 1478, Sixtus published the papal bull Exigit Sincerae Devotionis Affectus through which the Spanish Inquisition was established in the Kingdom of Castile. Among the painters Lorenzo sponsored was Bottecilli. He was also a noted theological writer and teacher who gave lectures at universities in Siena, Pavia, Padua, Florence and Bologna. The Counter-Reformationâs success, or otherwise, depended on a number of factors but pro-reform popes was certainly a highly important one. Sixtus founded the Spanish Inquisition through the bull Exigit sincerae devotionis affectus (1478), and he annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance. The Pazzi conspiracy shocked Florence, as it had been approved by the Pope himself, Sixtus IV. On April 26, 1478, during mass at Florence cathedral, the agents of Girolamo Riario, Sixtus IVâs nephew, wounded Lorenzo and killed his brother, Giuliano, in a plot to overthrow the Medici. He finally absolved Lorenzo and removed the interdict. The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. In 1472, under Cardinal Oliviero Carafa, he sent a fleet that participated in the landing at the important Muslim stronghold of Smyrna, but a new expedition in 1473 failed. The secular fortunes of the Della Rovere family began when Sixtus invested his nephew Giovanni with the lordship of Senigallia and arranged his marriage to the daughter of Federico III da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino; from that union came a line of Della Rovere dukes of Urbino that lasted until the line expired, in 1631. The Medici were also at the forefront of banking innovation, which helped raise their profile among the rich of Europe.  Arguably the "ideology of conquest" expounded in those texts became the means by which commerce and conversion were facilitated.. An assassination attempt on Pope Sixtus IV led to the excommunication of the House of Medici from the Catholic Church and the declaration of holy war on the city of Florence in 1478. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. He felt unwell that evening and was forced to cancel a meeting he was to hold with his cardinals the following morning. He also lined the coffers of the state by unscrupulously selling high offices and privileges..  For refusing to desist from the very hostilities that he himself had instigated and for being a dangerous rival to Della Rovere dynastic ambitions in the Marche, Sixtus placed Venice under interdict in 1483. Shortly after the true Pope Sixtus, Francesco, was elected on conclave, Alessandro usurped the Holy See and had his brother locked up in Castel Sant'Angelo. For the archbishop, see, Bishops consecrated by Pope Sixtus IV as principal consecrator, On his premature death (1501), Giovanni entrusted his son, Raiswell, p. 469 see also "Black Africans in Renaissance Europe", p. 281, Sued-Badillo (2007), see also O'Callaghan, p. 287-310, Sten Lindroth. In ecclesiastical affairs, Sixtus promoted the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, which had been confirmed at the Council of Basle in 1439, and he designated 8 December as its feastday. Nevertheless, Sixtus IV quarrelled over protocol and prerogatives of jurisdiction; he was unhappy with the excesses of the Inquisition and condemned the most flagrant abuses in 1482. â¦Spanish Inquisition, established by Pope. His beneficiaries were members of his own family, whom he greatly enriched and who involved him in messy disputes, perhaps the worst of which was a conspiracy against Lorenzo (the Magnificent) deâ Medici. Corrections? Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. The choice of this location for the university derived from the fact that the archbishopric of Uppsala had been one of the most important sees in Sweden proper since Christianity first spread to this region in the ninth century, as well as Uppsala being long-standing hub for regional trade. Sixtus IV, original name Francesco della Rovere, (born July 21, 1414, Cella Ligure, near Savona, Republic of Genoaâdied Aug. 12, 1484, Rome), pope from 1471 to 1484 who effectively made the papacy an Italian principality. In addition to being a patron of the arts, Sixtus was a patron of the sciences. The Pazzi conspiracy was a real-life historical event, which saw the Pazzi family try to overthrow the Medicis in a plot sanctioned by Pope Sixtus IV (played in Medici by Raoul Bova). Our editors will review what youâve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 7. Created by Nicholas Meyer, Frank Spotnitz.  The ecclesiastical penalties were directed towards those who were enslaving the recent converts.. That was part of a broader scheme of urbanization carried out under Sixtus IV, who swept the long-established markets from the Campidoglio in 1477 and decreed in a bull of 1480 the widening of streets and the first post-Roman paving, the removal of porticoes and other post-classical impediments to free public passage. , As a young man, Della Rovere joined the Franciscan Order, an unlikely choice for a political career, and his intellectual qualities were revealed while he was studying philosophy and theology at the University of Pavia. Sixtus IV became ill on 8 August 1484; this illness worsened on 10 August while the pope was attending an event in Rome. Francesco Salviati, Archbishop of Pisa and a main organizer of the plot, was hanged on the walls of the Florentine Palazzo della Signoria. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 â 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The top of the casket is a lifelike depiction of the Pope lying in state. Louis was thus in conflict with the papacy, and Sixtus could not permit it. Nepotism, too, was widespread. Like all of the ruling families of the Italian Renaissance and throughout history, the Medici were not without their own frequent drama and intrigue. A pope against any form of real reform could do the Counter-Reformation much harm. However, after the conquest of Smyrna, the fleet disbanded. His accomplishments as pope included the construction of the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Vatican Archives. Those concessions were confirmed by Sixtus in his own bull, Aeterni regis, of 21 June 1481. 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