[101], Roh Moo-hyun was elected to the presidency in December 2002 by direct election. The day is also called Gwangbokjeol (meaning Time of the Restoration of Light). social studies. [11] In addition, the U.S. military was largely unprepared for the challenge of administering the country, arriving with no knowledge of the language, culture or political situation. Show Answer. 1. [71][75], The Fourth Republic began with the adoption of the Yushin Constitution on November 21, 1972. Roh's government announced the official unification plan, Nordpolitik, and established diplomatic ties with the Soviet Union, China, and countries in East Europe. (Credit: Paul … Since the 1960s, the country has developed from one of Asia's poorest to one of the world's wealthiest nations. A constitution was adopted, setting forth a presidential form of government and specifying a four-year term for the presidency. In January 2011, southern Sudan voted for independence through a referendum. Syngman Rhee, first president of the Republic of Korea (South Korea). South Sudan, the newest sovereign state, attained independence on July 9, 2011. [112], Many issues plagued the government in the beginning of the administration: controversies regarding the appointment of high-ranking government officials, rampant political conflicts, accusations of oppression of media and strained diplomatic relationships with North Korea and Japan. Kenya gained its independence from Britain with Jomo Kenyatta as the country’s first Prime Minister. During the rebellion and its suppression 14,000 to 60,000 people were killed in all fighting. South Sudan gained independence from Sudan on 9 July 2011 as the outcome of a 2005 agreement that ended Africa's longest-running civil war. Park was one of a group of military leaders who had been pushing for the de-politicization of the military. This union was a dominion that included the former colonies of the Cape and Natal. It marked the culmination of a January independence vote, which was guaranteed in a 2005 peace deal that ended the most recent north-south … In May of that year, Rhee pushed through constitutional amendments which made the presidency a directly-elected position. While legislating the Act of National Holidays in 1949, Aug. 15 became a national holiday to commemorate Korea's liberation from Japanese colonization. The Union Jack was replaced by the black, red and green flag of the new nation. [69][71], Park ran again in the 1967 presidential election, taking 51.4% of the vote. The after-effects of the Japanese exploitation remained in the South, as in the North. [56][62][68], Economic and technological growth during this period improved the standard for living, which expanded opportunities for education. [12] Thus many of their policies had unintended destabilizing effects. However, Russia had dropped its boycott of the Security Council and had rejoined it during the Korean War. 8 years after the end of the second Boer war on 31 May 1910, Britain gave South Africa nominal independence. The main policy of the First Republic of South Korea was anti-communism and "unification by expanding northward". She is the eighteenth President of South Korea and is the eldest child of South Korea's stratocratic third President, Park Chung-hee. [33][34][35], Rhee regained control of parliament in the 1954 election, and thereupon pushed through an amendment to exempt himself from the eight-year term limit, and was once again re-elected in 1956. The first country to declare independence was Colombia in 1810. USIP monitored the developments preceding and following this dramatic event. When did the Republic of South Sudan gain its independence? March First Movement, also called Samil Independence Movement, series of demonstrations for Korean national independence from Japan that began on March 1, 1919, in the Korean capital city of Seoul and soon spread throughout the country. Lv 7. [4][5], The resolution from the UN General Assembly called for a UN-supervised general election in Korea, but after the North rejected this proposition, a general election for a Constitutional Assembly took place in the South only, in May 1948. French Guiana is still an official part of France. The Soviet forces having withdrawn in 1948, North Korea pressured the South to expel the United States forces, but Rhee sought to align his government strongly with America, and against both North Korea and Japan. That pushed its 2020 gain to 16%, an ending that would have seemed far-fetched in the bear-market days of March.Investors needed nerves of steel to stay the course, and those who did … South Africa gained Independence on 31 st May 1961. Congo, South Korea, North Korea, Bahrain and Liechtenstein also celebrate August 15 as their Independence Day. This rapid economic growth, however, widened the gap between the rich and the poor, the urban and rural regions, and also exacerbated inter-regional conflicts. The German-mandated territory of South West Africa was given to South Africa in 1915 by the League of Nations. 1 decade ago. He was inaugurated on May 10, 2017. [66][67] Soon thereafter, Korea joined the Vietnam War, eventually sending a total of 300,000 soldiers from 1964 to 1973 to fight alongside US troops and South Vietnamese Armed Forces. 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Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn acted as President of South Korea[126] pending completion of investigations[127] into the actions of Park Geun-hye, and in the absence of any intervening election. South Sudan gained independence from Sudan on 9 July 2011 as the outcome of a 2005 peace deal that ended Africa's longest-running civil war. Japan used its victory to annex Korea in 1910, having already installed a puppet leader. A new constitution was finally agreed by all parties in 1979 and independence achieved in 1980. In a response to popular demand, former presidents Chun and Roh were both indicted on charges linked to bribery, illegal funds, and in the case of Chun, responsibility for the Gwangju massacre. Gran Colombia was the first union of independent nations in South America. The country occurred in the international isolation for its anti-colonial movement. His victory came with much support from the younger generation and civic groups who had hopes of a participatory democracy, and Roh's administration consequently launched with the motto of "participation government". The National Liberation Day of Korea is a holiday celebrated annually on 15 August in both South and North Korea.It commemorates Victory over Japan Day, when at the end of World War II, the U.S. and Soviet forces helped end 35 years of Japanese occupation and colonial rule of Korea that lasted from 1910-1945. The government retaliated by removing the opposition leader Kim Young-sam from the assembly and suppressing the activists with violent means. Walvis Bay was given up in 1993. The impeachment was upheld by the Constitutional Court on 10 March 2017, ending Park's presidency and forcing her out of office. In 1910, Japan annexed Korea in the aftermath of the Russo-Japanese War. Approximately 40 percent of total farm households became small landowners. This incident succeeded in getting the Japanese to surrender and sign the Potsdam Declaration. [64][65] This treaty brought Japanese funds in the form of loans and compensation for the damages suffered during the colonial era without an official apology from the Japanese government, sparking much protest across the nation. In 1948, the Rhee government repressed military uprisings in Jeju, Suncheon and Yeosu. The last was Suriname in 1975. The humanitarian issue of reuniting separated families was dealt with first, and in September 1985, families from both sides of the border made cross visits to Seoul and Pyongyang in an historic event. The list does not include days commemorating regime changes (e.g. Freedom of the press was expanded, university autonomy recognised, and restrictions on overseas travels were lifted. Meanwhile, it was not until the end of World War II that Korea gained its independence after 36 years of oppression under the Japanese. When did the Republic of South Sudan gain its independence? Settled, literate societies on the Korean peninsula appear in Chinese records as early as the fourth century BCE. [35][37], The administration became increasingly repressive while dominating the political arena, and in 1958, it sought to amend the National Security Law to tighten government control over all levels of administration, including the local units. This announcement consolidated and strengthened the opposition; in June 1987, more than a million students and citizens participated in the nationwide anti-government protests of the June Democracy Movement. Civilian governments are conventionally numbered from the First Republic of Syngman Rhee to the contemporary Sixth Republic. The Japanese occupation of Korea ended on August 15, when the Empire of Japan announced its surrender in the Second World War. The Unilateral Declaration of Independence of 1965 stated that South Rhodesia was no longer under the British rule. JAI HIND! [77], Despite economic growth and success in diplomatic relations, the government that gained power by coup d'etat was essentially a military regime and the public's support and trust in it was low when the promises for democratic reform never materialized. [60] At the time the presidency was constitutionally limited to two terms, but a constitutional amendment was forced through the National Assembly in 1969 to allow him to seek a third term. The combination of three letters, "Gwang," "Bok" and "Jeol" means "light," "return" and "festival day," referring to the restoration of national independence that was lost for 36 years under Japanese rule. The history of South Korea formally begins with its establishment on 15 August 1948. Emperor Sunjong was the last 'united' Korean leader and the … This led in 1948 to the establishment of two separate governments – the Communist-aligned Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the West-aligned First Republic of Korea – each claiming to be the legitimate government of all of Korea. With the country now divided, the relationship between the two Koreas turned more antagonistic as time passed. [109][110] In April 2008, the ruling party secured a majority in the National Assembly elections. However, large conglomerate chaebols continuously received preferential treatment and came to dominate the domestic market. That same year, South Korea recorded more deaths than births, resulting in a population decline for the first time on record. Much of this activity was from leftist and student groups, which had been instrumental in the overthrow of the First Republic. [61][70] As the rural economy steadily lost ground and caused dissent among the farmers, however, the government decided to implement measures to increase farm productivity and income by instituting the Saemaul Movement ("New Village Movement") in 1971. The history of South Korea formally begins with its establishment on 15 August 1948. Political and economic chaos - arising from a variety of causes - plagued the country in this period. In January 2011, southern Sudan voted for independence through a referendum. The country has been invaded countless times and undergone many hardships. The First Republic, arguably democratic at its inception, became increasingly autocratic until its collapse in 1960. The government declared martial law, called in the army, and suppressed the crowds with open fire. [77][81], The government made many efforts for cultural development: the National Museum of Korea, Seoul Arts Center, and National Museum of Contemporary Art were all constructed during this time. [23][16][24] Of note, President Rhee's regime was intolerant of opposition. [7] Lieutenant General John R. Hodge, their commander, took charge of the government. General Order No. Cooperating with the government, these businesses would later become the chaebol. [116][117][118][119] The administration also pursued improved diplomatic relations by holding summit talks with the United States, China and Japan, and participating in the ASEAN-ROK Commemorative Summit to strengthen ties with other Asian countries. But it did mark the peak formative period of … [9] Likewise, Hodge refused to recognize the newly formed People's Republic of Korea and its People's Committees, and outlawed it on 12 December. He was the country's first civilian president in 30 years since 1962 and promised to build a "New Korea". What choices did this new nation face as it tried to build a productive economy? [87], Roh Tae-woo became president for the 13th presidential term in the first direct presidential election in 16 years. It is also reducing its long-held dependence on American troops. Of the 196 countries on Earth, the vast majority became independent after 1800. This means either a change in Washington’s position, or some form of political change in South Korea itself to gain greater independence, will be a prerequisite for any major steps beyond the symbolic gestures of the past three years towards a serious change in the relationship. ", "Park impeachment: Bittersweet victory for families of Sewol ferry victims", "(LEAD) Acting president warns of N.K. [74], Parliamentary elections followed shortly after the presidential election where the opposition party garnered most of the seats, giving them the power to pass constitutional amendments. In 1997, the nation suffered a severe financial crisis, and the government approached the International Monetary Fund for relief funds. On September 9, 1948, a communist regime, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), was proclaimed under Kim Il-sung. South Korea and North Korea - The only common public holiday celebrated by North and South Korea, the day called 'National Liberation Day of Korea' refers to August 15, 1945 when the US and Soviet Forces ended the Japanese occupation of Korean Peninsula. ... Indonesia, Philippines, South Korea, Sri Lanka. Kim's government faced the daunting task of overcoming the economic crisis, but with the joint efforts of the government's aggressive pursuit of foreign investment, cooperation from the industrial sector, and the citizen's gold-collecting campaign, the country was able to come out of the crisis in a relatively short period of time. List. [129], For history of Korea before its division, see, The Academy of Korean Studies (2005, pp150-153). Korea, South: 15 August 1945 (from Japan) Kosovo: 17 February 2008 (self-declared) Kuwait: 19 June 1961 (from UK) Kyrgyzstan: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union) Laos: 19 July 1949 (from France) Latvia: 18 November 1991 (from Soviet Union) Lebanon: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration) Lesotho: 4 October 1966 (from UK) Liberia: 26 July 1847. rdenig_male. [121], Park Geun-hye was inaugurated in February 2013. One of the worst periods in Korean history happened in the first half of the 20th century when Korea became a colony of Japan. Roh was officially inaugurated in February 1988. Since its inception, South Korea has seen substantial development in education, economy, and culture. The country also faced a variety of catastrophes which claimed many lives: a train collision and a ship sinking in 1993, and the Seongsu Bridge and Sampoong Department Store collapses in 1994 and 1995. [55][57][58][60], Park's administration started the Third Republic by announcing the Five-Year Economic Development Plan, an export-oriented industrialization policy. [53] The Second Republic saw the hwan lose half of its value against the dollar between fall 1960 and spring 1961.[54]. The Potsdam Declaration included provisions of the Cairo Declaration adopted in 1943, guaranteeing the freedom of Korea from colonization. A celebration ceremony takes place at Independence Hall, located in Cheonan, Korea, and is usually attended by the Korean President. In 1900 the British signs an agreement giving Buganda autonomy. After Japan's surrender to the Allies (formalised on 2 September 1945), division at the 38th parallel marked the beginning of Soviet and U.S. occupation the North and South, respectively. For these efforts, Kim Dae-jung was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2000. South Korea celebrated 15th August as the Independence Day, when it gained freedom from the clutches of Japan. The president would be elected through indirect election by an elected body, and the term of presidency was extended to six years with no restrictions on reappointment. [34] These measures caused much outrage among the people, but despite public outcry, Rhee's administration rigged the March 1960 presidential election and won by a landslide.[38]. This treaty gradually restricted Korea form developing its own political, military and cultural status, making it impossible for Korea to build a national identity. Under Japanese rule, people were forced to have Japanese names, and many Koreans were forcibly conscripted to provide labor for Japan and were also forcibly drafted into the Japanese … The US commemorates its Independence Day on July 4. On June 25, 1950, the Korean War broke out. However, Park became presidential candidate of the new Democratic Republican Party (DRP), which consisted of mainly KCIA officials, ran for president and won the election of 1963 by a narrow margin. What nickname was given to pitcher Mordecai … [81][84][85], On June 29, 1987, the government's presidential nominee Roh Tae-woo gave in to the demands and announced the June 29 Declaration, which called for the holding of direct presidential elections and restoration of civil rights. [2][3], Emperor Hirohito announced the surrender of the Empire of Japan to the Allied Powers on 15 August 1945. 1. Which day marks the start of Lent? [128], Moon Jae-in is the current president of South Korea. Tight monetary laws and low interest rates contributed to price stability and helped the economy boom with notable growth in the electronics, semi-conductor, and automobile industries. The government set out to eliminate past vestiges of authoritarian rule, by revising laws and decrees to fit democratic provisions. In April 1987, President Chun made a declaration that measures would be taken to protect the current constitution, instead of reforming it to allow for the direct election of the president. What things did the Japanese do to Korea? [115], After regulatory and economic reforms, the economy bounced back, with the country's economy marking growth and apparently recovering from the global recession. [91] However, the growth of the economy had slowed down compared to the 1980s, with strong labor unions and higher wages reducing the competitiveness of Korean products on the international market, resulting in stagnant exports, while commodity prices kept on rising. According to the provisions of the Constitution, an indirect presidential election took place in July. The UK and the entire UNO did not treat South Rhodesia as a legal state. [citation needed] Park, feeling threatened, declared a state of national emergency on December 6, 1971. [93][94], Relations with the North improved and a summit meeting was planned, but postponed indefinitely with the death of Kim Il-sung. More than 1,500 demonstrations Russo-Japanese War Reagan also paid a visit, and is usually attended by the Korea-Japan ratified... Voted on Park 's presidency and forcing her out of office Olympics took when did south korea gain its independence, raising South Korea begins! 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